CUSHITIC AND NILOTIC PREHISTORY:

NEW ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FROM NORTH-WEST KENYA

 

BY B. M. LYNCH AND L. H. ROBBINS

http://in-africa.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Lynch-Robbins-1979-JAfrHist-Cushitic-Nilotic-preh-NW-Kneya.pdf

 

http://imgarcade.com/1/cushitic-people/

 

More on MALINDI

Malte Brun, Who was he? He wrote a geography of this Coast. No idea when it was published.

But I know that it was considered famous nearly one hundred and fifty years ago. The only remark Malte made about our bit of the coast was ‘What has become of the famous city of Melinda, and the twenty churches of Mombasa?—do they exist?’ That’s cryptic enough, if you like. The famous city of Malinda. Up it pops again. I heard an unusual thing the other day. Of how Malindi got its name. From a source you’d never guess. From Uganda. This is the story. It comes from an old witchdoctor, queerly enough.

As you know the Bantu peoples of Africa originally came from the country we now call Uganda and there­abouts. Because of sickness or drought, soil erosion or other causes they began to trek. Some tribes eventual­ly reached the Cape, others came down to this coast. One story says that these tribes were the llama tribes. Before their departure from their old haunts they agreed to each tribe taking the name of an animal. They would become blood brothers to the animal they had chosen. They were not to kill their blood brethren, but other tribes could. The result would mean equal distribution of food.
 

ILAMA TRIBES

All over Africa tribes still retain their llama names. Some have changed almost out of recognition. But there are two tribes on this coast that have not changed. The Wajomvu and the Wadigo (Wadege). This latter chose the name ‘People of the Birds’. And within living memory the old women of the Wadigo tribe would not eat the flesh of a bird. It was their tribal llama.

So here we have two of the llama tribes. And people who know of these things say that when they listen at nights on the coast, the sound of the drums, the death and pepo dances, are almost identical to those they have heard in Uganda. And they also say that wherever the Bantu people went they took with them the old place names they were used to. The following are names from Uganda. Think of the coast names they resemble. Masindi, Kisindi, Bumbire, Ribo, Petta, Kilim and Bulinda. There are dozens of others . . . but Malindi might easily have been one of them years ago, don’t you think? Edward Rodwell

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Omotik, Ndorobo in Kenya

 

Introduction / History

 

Sliding through the dense forest, the mud-covered young Dorobo hunter stiffened suddenly as he heard unfamiliar voices ahead. Creeping forward, he spied a group of oddly dressed people talking to his fellow tribesmen. "Is this really the end of the world, is this the Jesus they talk about?" he pondered. Curious, he stepped into the clearing and walked cautiously toward them. He had just seen the first Jesus-sent people to his own home.

 

http://joshuaproject.net/people_groups/13178/KE

Click on Map

Click on Map

 

BANTU MIGRATION

 

 

The Bantu expansion or Bantu colonisation

The Bantu expansion or Bantu colonisation was a millennia-long series of migrations of speakers of the original proto-Bantu language group.[1] [2] The primary evidence for this great expansion, one of the largest in human history, has been linguistic, namely that the languages spoken in Sub-Equatorial Africa are remarkably similar to each other, to the degree that it is unlikely that they began diverging from each other more than three thousand years ago. Attempts to trace the exact route of the expansion, to correlate it with archaeological evidence and genetic evidence, have not been conclusive; thus many aspects of the expansion remain in doubt or are highly contested.[3]

 

Cont: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bantu_expansion

 

Introduction

 

Between 1000-1800 AD, East Africa experienced a wave of migrations from different parts of Africa. The Bantu from the Congo or the Niger Delta Basin were the first to arrive, followed by the Luo from Bahr el Ghazel in Southern Sudan and then the Ngoni from Southern Africa.

 

 

Cont: http://www.elateafrica.org/elate/history/bantumigration/bantuintro.html

 

After their movements from their original homeland in West Africa, Bantus also encountered in East Africa peoples of Afro-Asiatic (mainly Cushitic) and Nilo-Saharan (mainly Nilotic and Sudanic) ancestral origin. As cattle terminology in use amongst the few modern Bantu pastoralist groups suggests, the Bantu migrants would acquire cattle from their new Cushitic neighbors. Linguistic evidence also indicates that Bantus likely borrowed the custom of milking cattle directly from Cushitic peoples in the area.[16] Later interactions between Bantu and Cushitic peoples resulted in Bantu groups with significant Cushitic ethnic admixture, such as the Tutsi of the African Great Lakes region; and culturo-linguistic influences, such as the Herero herdsmen of southern Africa.[17][18]

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bantu_peoples

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/2chapter5.shtml

 

Hodi!—May I approach? Although most people answer with a ‘Karibu’, it is incorrect to do so. The answer is ‘Hodi’, followed by ‘Karibu’.—Come near. But the word ‘hodi’ has a far greater significance than merely as a greeting. Throughout the breadth of equatorial Africa, and right down to the Cape the word is used. And used in its deeper sense, with its back¬ground of mystery and miracle, it is more protective than the strongest stockade. For in the blue, an un¬answered ‘Hodi’ is never disregarded amongst peaceful folk ... it would invoke witchcraft to approach a house or shamba unless the answering hail was heard.

There is another aspect of the word. It affects the coast. In the very old days—when the llama tribes first came down the sea—legend has it (and it can easily be believed) that there was a great shortage of water along the coastline. Wells were difficult to dig with the primitive tools in those days. But when a natural spring was found, its appearance in a waterless country was thought to be miraculous. And springs were named ‘Hodi’—you are welcome. Even from that time to this whenever a spring is approached, the hail is given. There is one at Bamburi, which you might know, and there is another at Port Reitz. It’s name is ‘Hodi’! . . . and thereby hangs a tale. I’ll tell it one day. Edward Rodwell

Tribes of Kenya

Click on Photo

Tribes of Kenya

 

Click on Photo

 

However, most Kenyans speak at least three languages: their tribal language, Swahili (which has become a ‘lingua franca’ among a large part of East Africa) and English. Swahili (or Kiswahili) and English are the official languages of Kenya.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Language

Language, however, is the main criteria for a tribe. There are three main language groups in which the tribes in Kenya can be divided:

 

Bantu-speaking tribes:
Central Bantu: Kikuyu, Akamba, Meru, Embu, Tharaka, Mbere
Western Bantu: Gussi, Kuria, Luhya
Coastal Bantu: Mikikenda, Swahili, Pokomo, Segeju, Taveta, Taita

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The Kikuyu

 

http://kwekudee-tripdownmemorylane.blogspot.co.uk/2012/11/kikuyu-people-kenyan-largest-and.html

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Nilotic-speaking tribes:
Plains Nilotic: Maasai, Samburu, Teso, Turkana, Elmolo, Njemps
Highland Nilotic: Kalenjin, Marakwet, Tugen, Pokot, Elkony, Kipsigis
Lake River Nilotic: Luo

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The Masai and Coloniasm

 

http://www.standardmedia.co.ke/mobile/?articleID=2000138655&story_title=How+Maasai+warriors+led+revolt+against+colonialists

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Cushitic-speaking tribes:
Eastern Cushitic: Rendille, Somali, Boran, Gabbra, Orma
Southern Cushitic: Boni

 

http://www.kenya-advisor.com/tribes-in-kenya.html

Dinka, a Wonderful Nilotic Ethnic Group from Sudan

Click above
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Kiswahili language


Swahili language, also called kiSwahili, or Kiswahili,  Bantu language spoken either as a mother tongue or as a fluent second language on the east coast of Africa in an area extending from Lamu Island, Kenya, in the north to the southern border of Tanzania in the south. (The Bantu languages form a subgroup of the Benue-Congo branch of the Niger-Congo language family.)

 

http://www.britannica.com/topic/576136/websites

 

http://www.swahilihub.com/JifunzeKiswahili/-/1306806/1333292/-/jbyx02z/-/index.html

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swahili_language

 

http://www.glcom.com/hassan/swahili_history.html

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Colonialism and its Legacies in Kenya, Peter ONdege Associate Professor of History Department of History, Political Science and Public Administration


http://international.iupui.edu/kenya/resources/Colonialism-and-Its-Legacies.pdf