The East India Company: How a trading corporation became an imperial ruler

Featured in BBC One’s new period drama Taboo as a company with huge influence and power – and one which is unafraid to further its interests by nefarious means – the East India Company was founded during the rule of Queen Elizabeth I and grew into a dominating global player with its own ‘army’.

 Writing for History Extra, Dr Andrea Major gives an insight into one of history’s most powerful companies, and its rise to political power on the Indian subcontinent…

Click  above

Slavery Timeline 1400-1500

A Chronology of Slavery, Abolition, and Emancipation in the Fifteenth Century

http://www.brycchancarey.com/slavery/chrono2.htm

The European Slave Trade, the destruction of Africa by Portugal

http://www.lisapoyakama.org/en/the-european-slave-trade-the-destruction-of-africa-by-portugal/

How the Myth of the "Irish slaves" Became a Favourite Meme of Racists Online… Irish scholar Liam Hogan has been tracking and debunking this reincarnated meme since he first saw it in 2013. Last year, Hogan published an impressive five-part series exposing the myth and provided a detailed historical analysis of the origins and evolution of the meme. 

I’m a research librarian at the Limerick City Library and an independent scholar. I am particularly interested in the complex historical relationship between Ireland and the Transatlantic Slave Trade.

https://www.splcenter.org/hatewatch/2016/04/19/how-myth-irish-slaves-became-favorite-meme-racists-online

Muslim Holocaust Muslim Genocide

This site is provided as a humanitarian public service to inform people about past, present and predicted future Muslim Holocausts and Muslim Genocides.

This site is necessary because of extraordinary lying by omission and commission by Western media, journalists, writers, academics and politicians in relation to such atrocities against Muslims and against non-European Humanity in general.

https://sites.google.com/site/muslimholocaustmuslimgenocide/

The Purging of Spain, history of terrorism

 

Seldom does a centuries-old story have such remarkable contemporary resonance. In April 1609. King Philip III of Spain signed an edict denouncing the Muslim inhabitants of Spain as heretics, traitors, and apostates. Later that year, on threat of death, the entire Muslim population of Spain was given three days to leave Spanish territory.

In the brutal and traumatic exodus that followed, entire families and communities were obliged to abandon homes and villages where they had lived for generations, leaving their property in the hands of their Christian neighbours. In Aragon and Catalonia, Muslims were escorted by government commissioners who forced them to pay whenever they drank water from a river or took refuge in the shade. For five years the expulsion continued to grind on, until an estimated 300,000 Muslims had been removed from Spanish territory, nearly 5 percent of the total population. By 1614 Spain had successfully implemented what was then the largest act of ethnic cleansing in European history, and Muslim Spain had effectively ceased to exist.

Blood and Faith is celebrated journalist Matthew Carrs riveting chronicle of this virtually unknown episode, set against the vivid historical backdrop of the history of Muslim Spain. Here is a remarkable window onto a little-known period in modern Europen a rich and complex tale of competing faiths and beliefs, of cultural oppression, and resistance against overwhelming odds.

 

Coolies: How Britain Re-Invented Slavery

Indian Slaves and Indentured labour 

ARAB SLAVE TRADE

The History of Arab Slavery in Africa

'Arab' is not a racial group, but an overarching term hugging Arabs who are African and some who are White and Jewish. (Mizrahi, which includes Syrian, Iraqi, Persian, Kurdish, Egyptian, Moroccan, and Tunisian Jews).

Slave traders, ordered by trade volume, were: the Portuguese, the British, the French, the Spanish, the Dutch Empire and they also operated in East African slave trade. Read Slavery (The Dutch India Company's "Slave Lodge at the Cape by Helene Vollgraaf for SA Cultural History Museum) also read “the British in Mombasa” by Sir John Gray 1824-1826.

The Indian subcontinent was the main source of slaves during the early part of the 18th century, supplying about 80% of the slaves. A temporary slaving station was established in Delagoa Bay (present day Maputo) between 1721 and 1730, but did not provide as many slaves as was hoped for. Between 1731 and 1765 more and more slaves were imported from Madagascar. After the first British Occupation of the Cape in 1795, East Africa became the main source of slaves. The Cape once again came under Dutch rule in 1802 and during this period roughly two thirds of the 1 039 slaves imported came from Mozambique. These slaves were known as Mozbiekers. This era ended with the second and final British Occupation of the Cape in 1806.

The ship, the Roode Vos was sent on a slaving expedition in 1654 to Mauritius and Antongil Bay in Madagascar, but the venture failed. Several failed expeditions followed, but on 28 March 1658 the Amersfoort with about 170 slaves on board arrived in Tible Bay Harbour.

The slaves were mainly brought in from

India - mostly from Bengal, Malabar and Coromandel (36.4%),

 

Ansu Datta (From Bengal to the Cape - Bengali Slaves in South Africa 2013) p 19 - "...studies of transoceanic trade suggest that slaves hardly played a part in the export trade from Bengal at that time [1665-1721]. As far as Africa is concerned, it seems that Bengali slaves who were brought to the Cape came mostly by way of Batavia."

the East Indies (31.47%),

Ceylon/Sri Lanka (3.1%),

Mozambique, Madagascar and the East African coast (26.65%)

Malaya (0.49%)

Mauritius (0.18%)

One does not need to look too deep, it is evidently clear….South America, North America, West Indies and all over across the Atlantic Ocean slaves were shipped in millions, not just from West Africa but East Africa and many other places too that were under colonialism or foreign occupancy.

 

The slaves were mainly brought in from

  • India - mostly from Bengal, Malabar and Coromandel (36.4%),

 

Ansu Datta (From Bengal to the Cape - Bengali Slaves in South Africa 2013) p 19 - "...studies of transoceanic trade suggest that slaves hardly played a part in the export trade from Bengal at that time [1665-1721]. As far as Africa is concerned, it seems that Bengali slaves who were brought to the Cape came mostly by way of Batavia."

 

  • the East Indies (31.47%),
  • Ceylon/Sri Lanka (3.1%),
  • Mozambique, Madagascar and the East African coast (26.65%)
  • Malaya (0.49%)
  • Mauritius (0.18%)
  • The rest were from unidentified places

1654

Slaves, from India and South East Asia, were introduced to the Cape.

1820

A number of Indians arrive in Cape Town from Bencoolen. A certain Mr Hare, provides security that they will not become chargeable to the Colony, brings them to the Cape.

1843

August, Natal becomes a British Crown Colony ruled from the Cape

1849

By this year the first Indians, had been introduced to Natal by E.R. Rathbone.

1856

The Natal Charter of 1856 is proclaimed. Natal receives representative self-government. Most councillors in the Legislature are elected, but the Government appoints the executive. The right to vote is based on property qualification.

1859

After protracted negotiations between the Natal Government and the Secretary of State for the Colonies, the Natal Coolie Law, Law no. 14 of 1859 is passed. This law makes it possible for the Natal Colony to introduce the immigration of Indians as indentured labour, with labourers having the option to return to India at the end of the five-year period, in which case a free passage would be provided. The system also provides for the labourers to re-indenture for a further five-year period, which would make them eligible to settle permanently in the colony. Upon completion of their indenture, the indentured Indian labourers are also entitled to a gift of crown land and full citizenship rights. This proviso was later withdrawn  with the proclamation of Act No. 25 of 1891, in order to discourage the settlement of Indians in the province.

1860

16 November, the first batch of 342 indentured Indian labourers arrives in Durban on board the Truro.

26 November, the second batch of 310 indentured Indian labourers arrives in Durban on board the Belvedere from Calcutta.

1861

The first Indian shop was opened by Bauboo Naidoo, an interpreter, in Field Street, Durban for the sale of condiments and other delicacies not included in t he rations issued by law to indentured workers.

1869

The first “passenger Indians” arrive in Durban. The appellation “passenger Indians” refers to Indian immigrant traders, artisans, teachers, shop assistants etc. who paid their own passage to the Natal Colony.

2 October, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi is born to Karamchand Utamchand (Kaba) and Putlibai Gandhi in Porbander, India.

1872

Aboobaker Haji Ahmed Jhaveri, one of the first passenger Indian traders, arrived in Natal in this year.

The Coolie Consolidation Amendment Act, Law No. 12 of 1872 makes provision for a Protector of Indian Immigrants, abolishes flogging for breaches of the Masters and Servants Act and the improvement of medical treatment for Indian immigrants.

25 November, Colonel Price-Lloyd is appointed as the first Protector of Indian Immigrants.  He begins to build up a suitable administrative system in order to give effect to Law No. 12 of 1872.

1874

At a time of extreme labour shortage, the Cape Colonial Government investigates the possibilities of importing labour from India or China for the construction of a railway, but eventually decides in favour of using African

22 January, The Immigration Trust Board is established in Natal under Law No. 208 of 1874.

1875

June, Aboobaker Amod, a Memon trader from Porbander established himself as the first ‘Arab’ trader in Natal, operating a store in West Street

1876

The Free State Republic passes legislation allowing Indians to enter the Republic with the understanding that they have no permanent right of residence.

1877

The first recorded passenger Indians travelling to the diamond fields of Griqualand West, near Kimberley in the Cape Colony, arrive in Port Elizabeth from India, via Mauritius. The names of three Indians, Tamarand, Tandryer and Vennellas, appear on the voter's roll for the District of Kimberley in the Cape Colony.

1880

Passenger Indians begin to arrive in considerable numbers on the diamond fields of Griqualand West, near Kimberley in the Cape Colony.

Passenger Indians also begin to arrive in Table Bay, Cape Town, taking up employment in Cape Town and surrounding areas.

1885

7 April Albert Christopher is born in Durban to indentured migrants who had arrived in the 1860s. His father, Narrainsamy Paupiah, arrived from Chingleput, India on the Earl of Hardwick in September 1863.  His mother Lutchmee Goorvadoo, arrived on the Saxon, in August 1864 from Chittoor, India. Christopher worked closely with Gandhi and was involved in several attempts to provide a platform for the political voice of colonial born Indians to be heard. He was also involved in a host of sports, education, and social welfare organisations until his death on 24 November 1960……………….

http://www.sahistory.org.za/topic/history-indians-south-africa-timeline1654-2008

 

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A 150-year African Indian Odyssey

 

Anton Burggraaf

 

16 November 2010

 

"African Indian Odyssey" brings together leading South African intellectual, political and cultural figures to tell the 150-year-old story of Indians in South Africa. The result is a powerful documentary that overturns stereotypes and gives fresh insight into what it means to be South African.

Read more: 
http://www.southafrica.info/about/history/africanindianodyssey.htm#.VKHIyv-VWgA#ixzz3NKDis400

 

http://www.southafrica.info/about/history/africanindianodyssey.htm#.VKHIyv-VWgA

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East Africa

In the British Empire, the labourers, originally referred to as "coolies", were indentured labourers who lived under conditions often resembling slavery. The system, inaugurated in 1834 in Mauritius, involved the use of licensed agents after slavery had been abolished in the British Empire. The agents imported indentured labour to replace the slaves.

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_diaspora_in_Southeast_Africa

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indentured labour from South Asia (1834-1917)

 

After the abolition of slavery, newly free men and women refused to work for the low wages on offer on the sugar farms in British colonies in the West Indies. Indentured labour was a system of bonded labour that was instituted following the abolition of slavery. Indentured labour were recruited to work on sugar, cotton and tea plantations, and rail construction projects in British colonies in West Indies, Africa and South East Asia.  From 1834 to the end of the WWI, Britain had transported about 2 million Indian indentured workers to 19 colonies including Fiji, Mauritius, Ceylon, Trinidad, Guyana, Malaysia, Uganda, Kenya and South Africa.

 

http://www.striking-women.org/module/map-major-south-asian-migration-flows/indentured-labour-south-asia-1834-1917

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German Colonization
 

The Treatment of the Natives

http://www.wintersonnenwende.com/scriptorium/english/archives/germancolonization/gcpf07.html

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Indian Slaves In South Africa – Indian African History

INDIAN SLAVES IN SOUTH AFRICA

A little-known aspect of Indian-South African relations

Soon after Jan van Riebeeck set up a Dutch settlement at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652, to supply provisions to Dutch ships plying to and from India and the East Indies, people from India were taken to the Cape and sold into slavery to do domestic work for the settlers, as well the dirty and hard work on the farms.

 

http://www.africaresource.com/rasta/sesostris-the-great-the-egyptian-hercules/indian-slaves-in-south-africa-a-retrospect/

 

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http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/culturenews/6359626/National-Archives-displays-present-anti-British-view-of-history.html

 

Indians Overseas, A guide to source materials in the India Office Records for the study of Indian emigration 1830-1950

 

http://www.bl.uk/reshelp/pdfs/indiansoverseas.pdf

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http://civics.sites.unc.edu/files/2012/05/ComparingtheSlaveTrades9.pdf

 

http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/roman_slaves.htm

 

Migration

Most inhabitants of the British Isles can trace their origins elsewhere, as can many people living in other parts of the world. British culture and society is the result of centuries of interactions between different groups who migrated and settled here.

http://www.striking-women.org/main-module-page/migration

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Top 6 Countries That Grew Filthy Rich From Enslaving Black People

http://atlantablackstar.com/2013/10/01/nations-that-benefited-the-most-from-enslaving-african-people/

The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 (citation 3 & 4 Will. IV c. 73) was an 1833 Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom abolishing slavery throughout the British Empire (with the exceptions "of the Territories in the Possession of the East India Company," the "Island of Ceylon," and "the Island of Saint Helena"; the exceptions were eliminated in 1843).

 

 

When You Kill Ten Million Africans You Aren't Called 'Hitler', exploitation of the Congo Free State by King Leopold II of Belgium between 1885 and 1908.

http://www.walkingbutterfly.com/2010/12/22/when-you-kill-ten-million-africans-you-arent-called-hitler/

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Memoirs of an Arabian Princess

An interesting read on “Memoirs of an Arabian Princess”……. Memoirs of an Arabian Princess by Emily Ruete (Salamah bint Saïd; Sayyida Salme, Princess of Zanzibar and Oman) (1844-1924), Translated by Lionel Strachey. New York: Doubleday, Page and Co., 1907.  

 

Memoirs of an Arabian Princess

http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/ruete/arabian/arabian.html

 

Why Do So Many Jews Hate Black People?

https://alethonews.wordpress.com/2013/12/26/why-do-so-many-jews-hate-black-people/

Atlantic slave trade

 

None of the Colonists were better than each other; sums it up well. In no way defending Britain and its atrocities but will say, the Belgians, Germans and the Portuguese had far worse track records than the British in punishment in terms of physical abuse and torture. If we talk in terms of psychological effects, they were as bad as each other.

Germans….Herero killing thousands of Africans in Namaqua Genocide in the early 1900’s?

King Leopold II of Belgium killing 10million in The Congo

The Portuguese presenting themselves before the Manikongo. The Portuguese initially fostered a good relationship with the Kingdom of Kongo. Civil War within Kongo would lead to many of its subjects ending up as enslaved people in Portuguese and other European vessels.

European colonization and slavery in West Africa


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlantic_slave_trade

Slavery (The Dutch India Company's "Slave Lodge at the Cape by Helene Vollgraaf for SA Cultural History Museum)

Click above

Slavery (The Dutch India Company's "Slave Lodge at the Cape by Helene Vollgraaf for SA Cultural History Museum)

 

The historian, Robert Shell defines slavery as a “system in which a person was freely disposed of to another free person in a legally - sanctioned sale, rite, transfer, or will, or hired out for work, without a consultation of, but not necessarily without compensa­tion to, the enslaved person.”1


Slavery is now widely considered - though still practised in some countries - as morally reprehensible. It was, however, a well-established practise in many ancient and classical civiliza­tions. In 15th to 18th century Europe, few people had ethical problems with slavery. With the exception of the views of early critics, such as the Spanish padre Alonso de Sandoval in 1627 and the reverend Godfried Udemans from Zeeland, slavery was re­garded as reconcilable with Christian practices.


The Dutch were late comers to the slave trade. The Portu­guese already had a flourishing slave trade by the mid 15th century. They introduced slaves from Africa to Spain and had a contract by the early 16th century to supply the Spanish colonies in South America and the Caribbean with 4 000 slaves annually. The English joined the slave trade in 1662 when John Hawkins captured 300 slaves “partly by sword and partly by other means”. The Dutch started to challenge Portugal’s control of the slave trade in the late 16th century. They became increasingly in­volved in the slave trade between West Africa and the Americas by 1620.2


Slavery was an established institution in the East Indies, India and Ceylon even before the arrival of the Portuguese and Dutch from the early 16th century onwards. Although the Dutch slave- trade in Asia was small in comparison with that in West Africa, it played an accepted and important part in the Dutch East India Company’s (DEIC) activities from the start.3

 

The system of slavery at the Cape was similar to that in other colonial societies. It was part of the colonial economic and mer­cantile system, driven by forces outside the Colony, such as the Netherlands and the DEIC power base in the East Indies. Slaves were forced labourers used to carry out the commercial objectives of what can be called an early format of a multinational company. However, there were important differences: the slaves also played a significant role in the Cape’s internal economic development from a small refreshment station with a small garrison to a relatively large colony with an established economy in 1795.


Slavery in the Cape was never biracial as in the Americas, but rather based on descent. That means that not all slaves were black nor were all slave owners white. Both the slave society and the slave owners were multiracial. In many cases there was no physi­cal distinction between slave and master due to a large number of creole mulatto Cape slaves (slaves born at the Cape of partial European descent). However, no person of purely European descent was ever enslaved and the enslavement of the local population was forbidden by law. Most, but not all, slave owners were of European descent. There were also African, Indian, Indonesian and mulatto slave owners. Only the aborigine peoples never owned slaves. The exception was Eva, a Khoi woman who inherited slaves from her European husband who was killed on a slaving expedition to Madagascar.5

 

Introduction of slavery at the Cape

 

The Cape was colonised by the DEIC in 1652 with Jan van Riebeeck as the first commander and slavery was introduced shortly thereafter. It seems as if the local population consisting of several Khoi clans were not interested in working for the new­comers and the Dutch were also prohibited by law to enslave the local population. As the DEIC had a limited workforce, a labour shortage soon resulted. Shortly after his arrival, Van Riebeeck requested the Batavian Government to send slaves, Chinese la­bourers or Mardijkers to the Cape. This request was denied. He repeated this request in letter after letter until permission was eventually granted.6


„ The ship, the Roode Vos was sent on a slaving expedition in 1654 to Mauritius and Antongil Bay in Madagascar, but the venture failed. Several failed expeditions followed, but on 28 March 1658 the Amersfoort with about 170 slaves on board arrived in Tible Bay Harbour. These slaves were survivors of 250 slaves captured by the Dutch from a Portuguese slaver which was on its way to Brazil with 500 slaves on board. The slaves were mostly of Angolan descent. Van Riebeeck was not favourably impressed since many of the slaves were too young to work and/or were weak and ill due to their ordeal at sea. Their numbers were strength­ened by the arrival of 228 slaves from Dahomey on board the Hassalt on 6 May 1658. These two shiploads were the only West African slaves brought to the Cape. The DEIC was prohibited by the Dutch West Indian Company (DWIC) from importing slaves from West Africa and the West Africans who did end up in the Cape were the victims of illegal smuggling, ship-wrecked persons or came as naval “prizes”.7


These events marked the beginning of the slave trade to the Cape, a trade which was well controlled by the DEIC who spon­sored slaving expeditions. These expeditions were the main source of slaves at the Cape as no burghers - private citizens - were allowed to import slaves. A second source was the DEIC’s return fleets from Batavia which usually brought a few slaves to the Cape - sometimes for the Company’s use, but mostly to be sold to the burghers. Foreign ships on their way to the Americas from Mada­gascar also sometimes sold slaves in Cape Town. Between 1658 and 1808 - when oceanic slave trade was abolished - 63 000 slaves were imported, most of whom came from East Africa (26,5%), India (25,9%), Madagascar (25,1%) and Indonesia (22,7%).8


The Indian subcontinent was the main source of slaves during the early part of the 18th century, supplying about 80% of the slaves. A temporary slaving station was established in Delagoa Bay (present day Maputo) between 1721 and 1730, but did not provide as many slaves as was hoped for. Between 1731 and 1765 more and more slaves were imported from Madagascar. After the first British Occupation of the Cape in 1795, East Africa became the main source of slaves. The Cape once again came under Dutch rule in 1802 and during this period roughly two thirds of the 1 039 slaves imported came from Mozambique. These slaves were known as Mozbiekers.9 This era ended with the second and final British Occupation of the Cape in 1806.

 

The slaves of the Cape can be divided into four groups, namely those who belonged to the DEIC, the DEIC officials, the burgh­ers and lastly those belonging to the Free Blacks.

There is very little known about the slaves owned by the DEIC officials as the Dutch authorities in the mother country did not approve of their officials owning a large number of slaves. The result was that the officials tended to report scantily on their own slave holdings and did not include all their slaves in the census surveys. The largest group of slaves were those belonging to the burghers and the smallest group, those belonging to the Free Blacks. The term Free Blacks refers to manumitted slaves at the Cape.10

The main concern of this booklet, however, is the DEIC slaves, housed in the Slave Lodge. The Company slaves were not only atypical of the Cape slaves, but also of slavery worldwide.

Fabrice Monteiro's Amazing Images of Brown. Fugitive Slaves In Slave Torture Devices

http://usslave.blogspot.co.uk/2012/05/fabrice-monteiros-amazing-images-of.html

Click above

In Fact people need to read about Sir Samuel Baker who accepted the firman (call) of the Khedive and it is estimated that 15,000 of the Khedive’s subjects. During Baker’s services under the Khedives he liberated many slaves and fought against the slave-traders and the tribal armies they assembled to help them enslaving their fellow men. So who were the Khedive? The term Khedive is a title largely equivalent to the English word viceroy. It was first used, without official recognition, by Muhammad Ali Pasha.

http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/turkiyah.htm

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The Voice of History.. an actual recordings of Slaves, some voices of over 100yrs

http://www.downvids.net/very-educational-the-voice-of-history--577653.html

 

 

Next time someone says, “But Africans sold themselves into slavery!”, send this article to them

http://www.uhurusolidarity.org/2014/09/08/next-time-someone-says-but-africans-sold-themselves-into-slavery-send-them-this-article/#comment-47396 

AFRICAN HOLOCAUST (The Maafa)

AFRICAN HOLOCAUST (The Maafa)

The Maafa reduced humans with culture and history to a people invisible from historical contribution; mere labor units, commodities to be traded. From this Holocaust/Maafa the modern racial-social hierarchy was born which continues to govern the lives of every living human where race continues to confer (or obstruct) privilege and opportunity.

And because the African Holocaust is rarely treat as a continuous history, worthy of an ongoing discourse, the inter-relations and the agents of this Holocaust escape treatment. It makes it easy to make people forget, or see slavery, colonialism, apartheid as divorced from one another. Treating them as isolated studies, often misses the pattern of white supremacy throughout African history. And in the 21st century the legacy of enslavement manifest itself in the social-economic status of Africans globally. Without a doubt Africans (as well as Native Americans and Australians) globally constitute the most oppressed, most exploited, most downtrodden people on the planet; a fact that testifies to the untreated legacy of Slavery, colonialism and apartheid. Not only is this reality in the social-economic spectrum, it is also experienced in the academic and political value the Maafa receives compared to the Jewish genocide.

However, It is estimated that 40 -100 million people were directly affected by slavery via the Atlantic, Arabian and Trans-Saharan routes.

http://www.africanholocaust.net/html_ah/holocaustspecial.htm

 

The Atlantic slave traders, ordered by trade volume, were: the Portuguese, the British, the French, the Spanish, the Dutch Empire, and the Thirteen Colonies. Several had established outposts on the African coast where they purchased slaves from local African leaders.[3] Current estimates are that about 12 million Africans were shipped across the Atlantic,[4] although the number purchased by the traders is considerably higher.[5][6][7]

 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlantic_slave_trade

 

German imperialism and the African Holocaust

 Imperialism, or extending a country’s power through military force, drew enormous strength from Darwin’s theory of evolution.1 Many European powers feared losing out in the struggle for existence and earnestly sought to expand their living space by colonizing far and distant places that possessed a wealth of natural resources. One such power was Germany and one place where the natives were murdered and the land plundered was German colonial Africa.

 http://creation.com/african-holocaust

Germany moves to atone for 'forgotten genocide' in Namibia
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/dec/25/germany-moves-to-atone-for-forgotten-genocide-in-namibia?CMP=share_btn_link

A Brutal Genocide in Colonial Africa Finally Gets its Deserved Recognition
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/brutal-genocide-colonial-africa-finally-gets-its-deserved-recognition-180957073/?utm_source=smithsoniantopic&no-ist

 

History of Slave Trade in Zambia

https://brainsplus.wordpress.com/2008/02/06/history-of-slavely-in-zambia-story-on-belliahs-voice/

 

Forgotten European atrocities in Africa

http://africanquarters.com/forgotten-european-atrocities-in-africa/

 

When You Kill Ten Million Africans You Aren’t Called ‘Hitler’

http://www.walkingbutterfly.com/2010/12/22/when-you-kill-ten-million-africans-you-arent-called-hitler/

 

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3516965.stm

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leopold_II_of_Belgium

 

'King Leopold's Ghost': Genocide With Spin Control

https://www.nytimes.com/books/98/08/30/daily/leopold-book-review.html

Photos of Belgians Reading the Bible before hanging to death a 7 year old African Boy

Click above

In 1908 Belgian who were residing in Congo and enslaving the people of Congo, read the Bible before the hanging of a 07-Year-old child in the Congo because her father has not produced enough wheat.